November 21, 2005
In history of human civilization people of the whole word had contributed to the creation and development of science and culture. Central Asian region had also made significant contribution for the development of human civilization.

During medieval times there were many scholars and scientific schools in Central Asia and Mamun Academy in Khorezm is one of the bright examples.

The resolution of 32-session of the General Conference of UNESCO in 2003 and decision of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan in 9 November 2004 on ?Celebration of 1000-Anniversary of Khorezm Mamun Academy? had promoted worldwide studies on famous medieval academic school and raised broad public awareness on rich scientific and cultural legacy of Uzbekistan.

Political stability, economical and social development of Khorezm at the end of 10th and the beginning of 11th centuries as well as fruitful relations with Mamun Academy in Baghdad created favorable conditions for creation of scientific school in Gurganch (present Urganch).

In 992 new ruler of Gurganch Aby Ali Mamun came to the power. During his ruling many scholars were invited to the court for creative activity. The tradition in Khorezmshakh?s court had been continued and favorable conditions for scholars were developed by his son Aby Khasan Ali bin Mamun (999-1009) and Abu Abbos Mamun bin Mamun.

The minister of the court, Abu Husain Akhmad bin Mukhammad as-Sakhliy, who was very found of science, literature and poetry, made a decision on instituting of scientific gathering into form of Khorezm Mamun Academy.

There is no precise information in medieval sources on exact date of creation of Khorezm Mamun Academy. However, there are evident facts in medieval scientific sources that Abu Raykhon Beruni and Abu Ali Ibn Sino (Avicenna) came together for scientific studies in Gurganch in 1004. That is why we could suggest that Academy was existed even before thanks to the favorable conditions provided by the Khorezmshakhs rulers.

Despite to the fact that Khorezm Mamun Academy functioned till 1017, many academic studies in the field of astronomy, mathematics, medicine, chemistry, physics, geography, mineralogy, history, philosophy, literature, linguistics, jurisprudence and other fields were developed. Particularly in astronomy, corrected astronomic tables on stars and planets movements and new astronomic equipments were elaborated. Having used such new equipment Beruni forecasted and observed lunar eclipse in 1004.

Studies in mathematics were carried out by Abu Mansur bin Iroq, Beruni and Abu Khayr Khammor. Ibn Iroq, teacher of Beruni, wrote about 30 academic books in mathematics and astronomy. Beruni himself, among his 150 books, wrote articles in mathematics and astronomy. Theorem on properties of isosceles triangle was proved by Abu Khayr Khammor and it was well-known as ?Theorem of Khammori? (?Ash-Shakl al-Khammori?).

The both Beruni and Ibn Sino had contributed to the development of chemistry. Beruni proved links between comparative weight of substance and its chemical properties in his article on ?Comparative Weights?. Ibn Sino carried out chemical experiences in transmutation of substances and its results were reflected in article ?Tractate on Philosophy Stone?. It is well known that article was appeared in Khorezm in 1005.

Abu Sakhl al-Masihiy, Abu Khayr Khamor, Ibn Sino and Beruni were carried out studies in medicine. In particularly, Abu Khayr Khammor was well-known as ?Second Hippocrates? for his innovative theoretical studies in following fields of medicine: human anatomy, diets of elderly people, methods of medical experiment, food substances and epilepsy. Abu Sakhl al-Masihiy was famous for his practical studies in medicine. Ibn Sino, despite of his short five year stay in Khorezm (1005-1010), wrote very important article in medicine on ?Injuries Treatment? (?Daf al-mador?).

Researches in geography were mainly related with name of Beruni. From the age of 16 he has spent time for measuring of geographic latitude of various sites and for example, he calculated geographical latitude of Kyat town in Khorezm. In 994 he succeeded to measure precise deflection value of ecliptic plane of Bushkanz village (in between western bank of Amudaryo River and Kyat town) in respect of equator. In 995 Beruni had started studies on creating of image of the Earth in form of globe. It was the first imagination of the Earth as globe with relief. Beruni wrote scientific article in various fields of geography such as natural geography, hydrology and mineralogy.

Khorezm Mamun Academy was famous also by its academic studies in social sciences. Philosophy was deeply studied during correspondence between Beruni and Ibn Sino. Both scholars expressed their views on philosophical ideas of Aristotle on the limit of the world. Beruni and Ibn Sino were in favor of existence of other worlds and other cultures.

Researches in history science were broadly presented in Khorezm Mamun Academy. In order to continue academic traditions Beruni wrote the book on ?Famous Personalities of Khorezm? or ?History of Korezm?. Unfortunately, book was not preserved and main part of the book was reflected in the book of Abu Fazl Baykhakhiy ?History of Masudi?, which was devoted to the sultan Masud Gaznaviy. Moreover, we could find out information on history in other books of Beruni, such as ?Monuments?, ?Knowledge?(?At-Tafhim?) and ?India?.

According to the books of as-Saolibi ?Amazing Information? (?Latoif al-maorif?, 10th-11th century) , as-Samoni ?Book on Predecessors?(?Kitab al-ansob?, 12th century), Yokut al-Khamaviy ?Encyclopedia of Writers? (?Mujam al-udabo?) and others. Khorezm Mamun Academy was also well-known as center of literature and arts. There were many poets and writers who performed in Khorezm Mamun Academy, such as Akhmad bin Mukhammad bin Sakhriy, Abdullokh bin Khamid, Abu Sayid bin Shabib, Abu Khasan bin Mamun, Abu Abdullokh at-Tokhir, Ibrokhim Raqqoniy. Minister at the court of Khorezmshakhs as-Sakhliy himself wrote poems and regularly organized contests in literature in the Khorezm Mamun Academy.

During this epoch linguistic-scholars of Khorezm Mamun Academy developed grammar of Arabic language and vocabulary, which was considered as important tool of scientific communication.

Khorezm Mamun Academy was re-created in Khiva by Decree of the President of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov in 1997. Contacts: Khorezm Mamun Academy Markaz-1, Khiva, 741400, Khorezm Region, Republic of Uzbekistan Telephone: (+998-62) 375.51.43, 375.71.00 Fax: (+998-62) 375.51.43 E-mail: safarov@uzsci.net, mamun@intal.uz.


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